Galileo Gen1/Gen2

Overview

This board configuration enables kernel support for the board’s Intel® Quark™ SoC, along with the following devices:

  • High Precision Event Timer (HPET)
  • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus query
  • Serial Ports in Polling and Interrupt Driven Modes

Note

This board configuration may work with similar boards that are not officially supported.

Hardware

This section provides information about the physical characteristics of the board. Subsections contain detailed information on pin names, jumper settings, memory mappings, and board component layout.

Supported Features

This board supports the following hardware features:

  • HPET
  • PCI bus
  • Advanced Programmed Interrupt Controller (APIC)
  • Serial Ports in Polling and Interrupt Driven Modes
  • Ethernet in Interrupt Driven Mode
Interface Controller Driver/Component
HPET on-chip system clock
PCI on-chip PCI library
APIC on-chip interrupt controller
UART on-chip serial port-polling; serial port-interrupt
Ethernet on-chip Ethernet

The kernel currently does not support other hardware features. See the Intel |reg| Quark Core Hardware Reference Manual for a complete list of Galileo board hardware features, and the Intel |reg| Quark Software Developer Manual for Linux

PCI

PCI drivers assume that IO regions and IRQs for devices are preconfigured identically by the firmware on all supported devices. This configuration is specified in the Kconfig file for the Intel Quark X1000 SoC. The PCI library supports dynamically enumerating PCI devices, but that support is disabled by default.

Note

The PCI library does not support 64-bit devices. Memory address and size storage only require 32-bit integers.

Serial Port Polling Mode Support

The polling mode serial port allows debug output to be printed.

For more information, see Intel |reg| Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet, section 18.3.3 FIFO Polled-Mode Operation

Serial Port Interrupt Mode Support

The interrupt mode serial port provides general serial communication and external communication.

For more information, see Intel |reg| Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet, section 21.12.1.4.5 Poll Mode

Interrupt Controller

This board uses the kernel’s static Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT) to program the Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (APIC) interrupt redirection table.

IRQ Name Remarks Used by Zephyr Kernel
17 INTB UART serial port when used in interrupt mode
20 timer HPET timer driver

HPET System Clock Support

Galileo uses HPET timing with legacy-free timer support. The Galileo board configuration uses HPET as a system clock timer.

Ethernet Support

The Ethernet driver allocates a Direct Memory Access (DMA)-accessible pair of receive and transmit buffers and descriptors. The driver operates the network interface in store-and-forward mode and enables the receive interrupt.

For more information, see Intel |reg| Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet, section 15.0 10/100 Mbps Ethernet

Connections and IOs

For a component layout diagram showing pin names, see page 46 of the Intel |reg| Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet.

See also the Intel |reg| Galileo Datasheet.

For the Galileo Board Connection Diagram see page 9 of the Intel |reg| Galileo Board User Guide.

Jumpers & Switches

The kernel uses the Galileo default jumper settings except for the IOREF jumper, which must be set to match the external operating voltage of either 3.3 V or 5 V.

The Galileo default switch settings are:

Jumper Setting
IOREF 3.3V or 5V
VIN 5V Jumpered

For more information, see page 14 of the Intel |reg| Galileo Board User Guide.

Memory Mappings

This board configuration uses default hardware memory map addresses and sizes.

For a list of memory mapped registers, see page 868 of the Intel |reg| Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet.

Component Layout

See page 3 of the Intel® Galileo Datasheet for a component layout diagram. Click the link to open the Intel |reg| Galileo Datasheet.

For a block diagram, see page 38 of the Intel |reg| Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet.

Programming and Debugging

Use the following procedures for booting an image on a Galileo board.

Creating a GRUB2 Boot Loader Image from a Linux Host

If you are having problems running an application using the preinstalled copy of GRUB, follow these steps to test on supported boards using a custom GRUB.

  1. Install the requirements to build GRUB on your host machine.

    On Ubuntu, type:

    $ sudo apt-get install bison autoconf libopts25-dev flex automake
    

    On Fedora, type:

    $ sudo dnf install gnu-efi bison m4 autoconf help2man flex \
       automake texinfo
    
  2. Clone and build the GRUB repository using the script in Zephyr tree, type:

    $ cd $ZEPHYR_BASE
    $ ./boards/x86/common/scripts/build_grub.sh
    
  3. Find the binary at $ZEPHYR_BASE/boards/x86/common/scripts/grub/bin/grub.efi.

Preparing the Boot Device

Prepare either an SD-micro card or USB flash drive to boot the Zephyr application image on a Galileo board. The following instructions apply to both devices.

  1. Build a Zephyr application; for instance, to build the hello_world application on Galileo:

    # On Linux/macOS
    cd $ZEPHYR_BASE/samples/hello_world
    mkdir build && cd build
    
    # On Windows
    cd %ZEPHYR_BASE%\samples\hello_world
    mkdir build & cd build
    
    
    # Use cmake to configure a Ninja-based build system:
    cmake -GNinja -DBOARD=galileo ..
    
    # Now run ninja on the generated build system:
    ninja
    

    Note

    A stripped project image file named zephyr.strip is automatically created in the build directory after the application is built. This image has removed debug information from the zephyr.elf file.

  2. Use one of these cables for serial output:

    http://www.ftdichip.com/Products/Cables/USBTTLSerial.htm

  3. Format a microSD as FAT

  4. Create the following directories

    efi

    efi/boot

    kernel

  5. Copy the kernel file outdir/galileo/zephyr.strip to the $SDCARD/kernel folder.

  6. Copy your built version of GRUB to $SDCARD/efi/boot/bootia32.efi

  7. Create $SDCARD/efi/boot/grub.cfg containing the following:

    set default=0
    set timeout=10
    
    menuentry "Zephyr Kernel" {
       multiboot /kernel/zephyr.strip
    }
    

Booting the Galileo Board

Boot the Galileo board from the boot device using GRUB2 with the firmware present in the on-board flash.

Steps

  1. Insert the prepared boot device (micro-SD card or USB flash drive) into the Galileo board.

  2. Connect the board to the host system using the serial cable and configure your host system to watch for serial data. See https://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/intel-galileo-gen-2-board-assembly-using-eclipse-and-intel-xdk-iot-edition for the gen. 2 board, https://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/intel-galileo-gen-1-board-assembly-using-eclipse-and-intel-xdk-iot-edition for the gen. 1 board, or the Getting Started guide that you received with the board.

    Note

    On Windows, PuTTY has an option to set up configuration for serial data. Use a baud rate of 115200 and the SCO keyboard mode. The keyboard mode option is in a submenu of the Terminal menu on the left side of the screen.

  3. Power on the Galileo board.

  4. When the following output appears, press F7:

    Press [Enter] to directly boot.
    Press [F7]    to show boot menu options.
    
  5. From the menu that appears, select UEFI Misc Device to boot from a micro-SD card. To boot from a USB flash drive, select the menu entry that describes that particular type of USB flash drive.

    GRUB2 starts and a menu shows entries for the items you added to the file grub.cfg.

  6. Select the image you want to boot and press Enter.

    When the boot process completes, you have finished booting the Zephyr application image.

    Note

    If the following messages appear during boot, they can be safely ignored.

    WARNING: no console will be available to OS
    error: no suitable video mode found.
    

Known Problems and Limitations

At this time, the kernel does not support the following:

  • Isolated Memory Regions
  • Serial port in Direct Memory Access (DMA) mode
  • Supervisor Mode Execution Protection (SMEP)