Getting Started Guide

Follow this guide to set up a Zephyr development environment on your system, and then build and run a sample application.

Set Up a Development System

Follow one of the following guides for your host operating system.

Clone the Zephyr Repository

To clone the Zephyr source code repository from GitHub:

git clone https://github.com/zephyrproject-rtos/zephyr

Warning

Don’t clone Zephyr to a directory with spaces anywhere in the path. For example, on Windows, C:\Users\YourName\zephyr will work, but C:\Users\Your Name\zephyr will cause cryptic errors when you try to build an application.

Install Python Dependencies

Next, install additional Python packages required by Zephyr in a shell or cmd.exe prompt:

# Linux
pip3 install --user -r zephyr/scripts/requirements.txt

# macOS and Windows
pip3 install -r zephyr/scripts/requirements.txt

Some notes on pip’s --user option:

  • Installing with --user is the default behavior on Debian-based distributions and is generally recommended on Linux to avoid conflicts with Python packages installed using the system package manager.
  • On Linux, verify the Python user install directory ~/.local/bin is at the front of your PATH environment variable, otherwise installed packages won’t be found.
  • On macOS, Homebrew disables the --user flag[1].
  • On Windows using cmd.exe, although it’s possible to use the --user flag, it makes it harder for the command prompt to find executables installed by pip.

Set Up a Toolchain

Note

On Linux, you can skip this step if you installed the Zephyr SDK, which includes toolchains for all supported Zephyr architectures.

If you want, you can use the SDK host tools (such as OpenOCD) with a different toolchain by keeping the ZEPHYR_SDK_INSTALL_DIR environment variable set to the Zephyr SDK installation directory, while setting ZEPHYR_TOOLCHAIN_VARIANT appropriately for a non-SDK toolchain.

Zephyr binaries are compiled using software called a toolchain. You need to install and configure a toolchain to develop Zephyr applications[2].

Toolchains can be installed in different ways, including using installer programs, system package managers, or simply downloading a zip file or other archive and extracting the files somewhere on your computer. You configure the toolchain by setting the environment variable ZEPHYR_TOOLCHAIN_VARIANT to a recognized value, along with some additional variable(s) specific to that toolchain (usually, this is just one more variable which contains the path where you installed the toolchain on your file system).

Note

In previous releases of Zephyr, the ZEPHYR_TOOLCHAIN_VARIANT variable was called ZEPHYR_GCC_VARIANT.

The following toolchain installation options are available. The right choice for you depends on where you want to run Zephyr and any other requirements you may have. Check your board-level documentation if you are unsure about what choice to use.

To use the same toolchain in new sessions in the future you can make sure the variables are set persistently.

On macOS and Linux, you can set the variables by putting the export lines setting environment variables in a file ~/.zephyrrc. On Windows, you can put the set lines in %userprofile%\zephyrrc.cmd. These files are used to modify your environment when you run zephyr-env.sh (Linux, macOS) and zephyr-env.cmd (Windows), which you will learn about in the next step.

Build and Run an Application

Next, build a sample Zephyr application. You can then flash and run it on real hardware using any supported host system. Depending on your operating system, you can also run it in emulation with QEMU or as a native POSIX application.

A Brief Note on the Zephyr Build System

The Zephyr build system uses CMake. CMake creates build systems in different formats, called generators. Zephyr supports the following generators:

  • Unix Makefiles: Supported on UNIX-like platforms (Linux, macOS).
  • Ninja: Supported on all platforms.

This documentation and Zephyr’s continuous integration system mainly use Ninja, but you should be able to use any supported generator to build Zephyr applications.

Build the Application

Follow these steps to build the Hello World sample application provided with Zephyr.

Zephyr applications have to be configured and built to run on some hardware configuration, which is called a “board”[3]. These steps show how to build the Hello World application for the Arduino/Genuino 101 board. You can build for a different board by changing arduino_101 to another supported value. See Supported Boards for more information, or run ninja usage from the build directory (once you’ve run cmake) to get a list.

Note

If you want to re-use your existing build directory to build for another board, you must delete that directory’s contents first by running ninja pristine.

  1. Navigate to the main project directory:

    cd zephyr
    
  2. Set up your build environment:

    # On Linux/macOS
    source zephyr-env.sh
    # On Windows
    zephyr-env.cmd
    
  3. Build the Hello World sample for the arduino_101:

    # On Linux/macOS
    cd samples/hello_world
    mkdir build && cd build
    
    # On Windows
    cd samples\hello_world
    mkdir build & cd build
    
    
    # Use cmake to configure a Ninja-based build system:
    cmake -GNinja -DBOARD=arduino_101 ..
    
    # Now run ninja on the generated build system:
    ninja
    

    On Linux/macOS you can also build with make instead of ninja:

    cd samples/hello_world
    mkdir build && cd build
    
    # Use cmake to configure a Make-based build system:
    cmake -DBOARD=arduino_101 ..
    
    # Now run make on the generated build system:
    make
    

The main build products are in zephyr/samples/hello_world/build/zephyr. The final application binary in ELF format is named zephyr.elf by default. Other binary formats and byproducts such as disassembly and map files will be present depending on the target and build system configuration.

Other sample projects demonstrating Zephyr’s features are located in zephyr/samples and are documented in Samples and Demos.

Run the Application by Flashing to Another Board

Most “real hardware” boards supported by Zephyr can be flashed by running ninja flash from the build directory. However, this may require board-specific tool installation and configuration to work properly.

See Run an Application in the Application Development Primer and the documentation provided with your board at Supported Boards for additional details if you get an error.

Run the Application in QEMU

On Linux and macOS, you can run Zephyr applications in emulation on your host system using QEMU when targeting either the X86 or ARM Cortex-M3 architectures.

To build and run Hello World using the x86 emulation board configuration (qemu_x86), type:

cd $ZEPHYR_BASE/samples/hello_world
mkdir build && cd build

# Use cmake to configure a Ninja-based build system:
cmake -GNinja -DBOARD=qemu_x86 ..

# Now run ninja on the generated build system:
ninja
ninja run

To exit, type Ctrl-a, then x.

Use the qemu_cortex_m3 board configuration to run on an emulated Arm Cortex-M3.

Running a Sample Application natively (POSIX OS)

Finally, it is also possible to compile some samples to run as native processes on a POSIX OS. This is currently only tested on Linux hosts.

On 64 bit host operating systems, you will also need a 32 bit C library installed. See the Native POSIX execution (native_posix) section on host dependencies for more information.

To compile and run Hello World in this way, type:

cd $ZEPHYR_BASE/samples/hello_world
mkdir build && cd build

# Use cmake to configure a Ninja-based build system:
cmake -GNinja -DBOARD=native_posix ..

# Now run ninja on the generated build system:
ninja

and then:

ninja run

# or just:
zephyr/zephyr.exe
# Press Ctrl+C to exit

You can run zephyr/zephyr.exe --help to get a list of available options. See the Native POSIX execution (native_posix) document for more information.

This executable can be instrumented using standard tools, such as gdb or valgrind.

Footnotes

[1]For details, see https://docs.brew.sh/Homebrew-and-Python#note-on-pip-install—user.
[2]

Usually, the toolchain is a cross-compiler and related tools which are different than the host compilers and other programs available for developing software to run natively on your operating system.

One exception is when building Zephyr as a host binary to run on a POSIX operating system. In this case, you still need to set up a toolchain, but it will provide host compilers instead of cross compilers. For details on this option, see Native POSIX execution (native_posix).

[3]This has become something of a misnomer over time. While the target can be, and often is, a microprocessor running on its own dedicated hardware board, Zephyr also supports using QEMU to run targets built for other architectures in emulation, targets which produce native host system binaries that implement Zephyr’s driver interfaces with POSIX APIs, and even running different Zephyr-based binaries on CPU cores of differing architectures on the same physical chip. Each of these hardware configurations is called a “board,” even though that doesn’t always make perfect sense in context.