This is the documentation for the latest (main) development branch of Zephyr. If you are looking for the documentation of previous releases, use the drop-down menu on the left and select the desired version.

CAN Controller

Overview

Controller Area Network is a two-wire serial bus specified by the Bosch CAN Specification, Bosch CAN with Flexible Data-Rate specification and the ISO 11898-1:2003 standard. CAN is mostly known for its application in the automotive domain. However, it is also used in home and industrial automation and other products.

A CAN transceiver is an external device that converts the logic level signals from the CAN controller to the bus-levels. The bus lines are called CAN High (CAN H) and CAN Low (CAN L). The transmit wire from the controller to the transceiver is called CAN TX, and the receive wire is called CAN RX. These wires use the logic levels whereas the bus-level is interpreted differentially between CAN H and CAN L. The bus can be either in the recessive (logical one) or dominant (logical zero) state. The recessive state is when both lines, CAN H and CAN L, at roughly at the same voltage level. This state is also the idle state. To write a dominant bit to the bus, open-drain transistors tie CAN H to Vdd and CAN L to ground. The first and last node use a 120-ohm resistor between CAN H and CAN L to terminate the bus. The dominant state always overrides the recessive state. This structure is called a wired-AND.

Warning

CAN controllers can only initialize when the bus is in the idle (recessive) state for at least 11 recessive bits. Therefore you have to make sure that CAN RX is high, at least for a short time. This is also necessary for loopback mode.

CAN Transceiver

The bit-timing as defined in ISO 11898-1:2003 looks as following:

CAN Timing

A single bit is split into four segments.

  • Sync_Seg: The nodes synchronize at the edge of the Sync_Seg. It is always one time quantum in length.

  • Prop_Seg: The signal propagation delay of the bus and other delays of the transceiver and node.

  • Phase_Seg1 and Phase_Seg2 :Define the sampling point. The bit is sampled at the end of Phase_Seg1.

The bit-rate is calculated from the time of a time quantum and the values defined above. A bit has the length of Sync_Seg plus Prop_Seg plus Phase_Seg1 plus Phase_Seg2 multiplied by the time of single time quantum. The bit-rate is the inverse of the length of a single bit.

A bit is sampled at the sampling point. The sample point is between Phase_Seg1 and PhaseSeg2 and therefore is a parameter that the user needs to choose. The CiA recommends setting the sample point to 87.5% of the bit.

The resynchronization jump width (SJW) defines the amount of time quantum the sample point can be moved. The sample point is moved when resynchronization is needed.

The timing parameters (SJW, bitrate and sampling point, or bitrate, Prop_Seg, Phase_Seg1and Phase_Seg2) are initially set from the device-tree and can be changed at run-time from the timing-API.

CAN uses so-called identifiers to identify the frame instead of addresses to identify a node. This identifier can either have 11-bit width (Standard or Basic Frame) or 29-bit in case of an Extended Frame. The Zephyr CAN API supports both Standard and Extended identifiers concurrently. A CAN frame starts with a dominant Start Of Frame bit. After that, the identifiers follow. This phase is called the arbitration phase. During the arbitration phase, write collisions are allowed. They resolve by the fact that dominant bits override recessive bits. Nodes monitor the bus and notice when their transmission is being overridden and in case, abort their transmission. This effectively gives lower number identifiers priority over higher number identifiers.

Filters are used to whitelist identifiers that are of interest for the specific node. An identifier that doesn’t match any filter is ignored. Filters can either match exactly or a specified part of the identifier. This method is called masking. As an example, a mask with 11 bits set for standard or 29 bits set for extended identifiers must match perfectly. Bits that are set to zero in the mask are ignored when matching an identifier. Most CAN controllers implement a limited number of filters in hardware. The number of filters is also limited in Kconfig to save memory.

Errors may occur during transmission. In case a node detects an erroneous frame, it partially overrides the current frame with an error-frame. Error-frames can either be error passive or error active, depending on the state of the controller. In case the controller is in error active state, it sends six consecutive dominant bits, which is a violation of the stuffing rule that all nodes can detect. The sender may resend the frame right after.

An initialized node can be in one of the following states:

  • Error-active

  • Error-passive

  • Bus-off

After initialization, the node is in the error-active state. In this state, the node is allowed to send active error frames, ACK, and overload frames. Every node has a receive- and transmit-error counter. If either the receive- or the transmit-error counter exceeds 127, the node changes to error-passive state. In this state, the node is not allowed to send error-active frames anymore. If the transmit-error counter increases further to 255, the node changes to the bus-off state. In this state, the node is not allowed to send any dominant bits to the bus. Nodes in the bus-off state may recover after receiving 128 occurrences of 11 concurrent recessive bits.

You can read more about CAN bus in this CAN Wikipedia article.

Zephyr supports following CAN features:

  • Standard and Extended Identifiers

  • Filters with Masking

  • Loopback and Silent mode

  • Remote Request

Sending

The following code snippets show how to send data.

This basic sample sends a CAN frame with standard identifier 0x123 and eight bytes of data. When passing NULL as the callback, as shown in this example, the send function blocks until the frame is sent and acknowledged by at least one other node or an error occurred. The timeout only takes effect on acquiring a mailbox. When a transmitting mailbox is assigned, sending cannot be canceled.

struct can_frame frame = {
        .flags = 0,
        .id = 0x123,
        .dlc = 8,
        .data = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}
};
const struct device *const can_dev = DEVICE_DT_GET(DT_CHOSEN(zephyr_canbus));
int ret;

ret = can_send(can_dev, &frame, K_MSEC(100), NULL, NULL);
if (ret != 0) {
        LOG_ERR("Sending failed [%d]", ret);
}

This example shows how to send a frame with extended identifier 0x1234567 and two bytes of data. The provided callback is called when the message is sent, or an error occurred. Passing K_FOREVER to the timeout causes the function to block until a transfer mailbox is assigned to the frame or an error occurred. It does not block until the message is sent like the example above.

void tx_callback(const struct device *dev, int error, void *user_data)
{
        char *sender = (char *)user_data;

        if (error != 0) {
                LOG_ERR("Sending failed [%d]\nSender: %s\n", error, sender);
        }
}

int send_function(const struct device *can_dev)
{
        struct can_frame frame = {
                .flags = CAN_FRAME_IDE,
                .id = 0x1234567,
                .dlc = 2
        };

        frame.data[0] = 1;
        frame.data[1] = 2;

        return can_send(can_dev, &frame, K_FOREVER, tx_irq_callback, "Sender 1");
}

Receiving

Frames are only received when they match a filter. The following code snippets show how to receive frames by adding filters.

Here we have an example for a receiving callback as used for can_add_rx_filter(). The user data argument is passed when the filter is added.

void rx_callback_function(const struct device *dev, struct can_frame *frame, void *user_data)
{
        ... do something with the frame ...
}

The following snippet shows how to add a filter with a callback function. It is the most efficient but also the most critical way to receive messages. The callback function is called from an interrupt context, which means that the callback function should be as short as possible and must not block. Adding callback functions is not allowed from userspace context.

The filter for this example is configured to match the identifier 0x123 exactly.

const struct can_filter my_filter = {
        .flags = CAN_FILTER_DATA,
        .id = 0x123,
        .id_mask = CAN_STD_ID_MASK
};
int filter_id;
const struct device *const can_dev = DEVICE_DT_GET(DT_CHOSEN(zephyr_canbus));

filter_id = can_add_rx_filter(can_dev, rx_callback_function, callback_arg, &my_filter);
if (filter_id < 0) {
  LOG_ERR("Unable to add rx filter [%d]", filter_id);
}

Here an example for can_add_rx_filter_msgq() is shown. With this function, it is possible to receive frames synchronously. This function can be called from userspace context. The size of the message queue should be as big as the expected backlog.

The filter for this example is configured to match the extended identifier 0x1234567 exactly.

const struct can_filter my_filter = {
        .flags = CAN_FILTER_DATA | CAN_FILTER_IDE,
        .id = 0x1234567,
        .id_mask = CAN_EXT_ID_MASK
};
CAN_MSGQ_DEFINE(my_can_msgq, 2);
struct can_frame rx_frame;
int filter_id;
const struct device *const can_dev = DEVICE_DT_GET(DT_CHOSEN(zephyr_canbus));

filter_id = can_add_rx_filter_msgq(can_dev, &my_can_msgq, &my_filter);
if (filter_id < 0) {
  LOG_ERR("Unable to add rx msgq [%d]", filter_id);
  return;
}

while (true) {
  k_msgq_get(&my_can_msgq, &rx_frame, K_FOREVER);
  ... do something with the frame ...
}

can_remove_rx_filter() removes the given filter.

can_remove_rx_filter(can_dev, filter_id);

Setting the bitrate

The bitrate and sampling point is initially set at runtime. To change it from the application, one can use the can_set_timing() API. The can_calc_timing() function can calculate timing from a bitrate and sampling point in permille. The following example sets the bitrate to 250k baud with the sampling point at 87.5%.

struct can_timing timing;
const struct device *const can_dev = DEVICE_DT_GET(DT_CHOSEN(zephyr_canbus));
int ret;

ret = can_calc_timing(can_dev, &timing, 250000, 875);
if (ret > 0) {
  LOG_INF("Sample-Point error: %d", ret);
}

if (ret < 0) {
  LOG_ERR("Failed to calc a valid timing");
  return;
}

ret = can_stop(can_dev);
if (ret != 0) {
  LOG_ERR("Failed to stop CAN controller");
}

ret = can_set_timing(can_dev, &timing);
if (ret != 0) {
  LOG_ERR("Failed to set timing");
}

ret = can_start(can_dev);
if (ret != 0) {
  LOG_ERR("Failed to start CAN controller");
}

A similar API exists for calculating and setting the timing for the data phase for CAN-FD capable controllers. See can_set_timing_data() and can_calc_timing_data().

SocketCAN

Zephyr additionally supports SocketCAN, a BSD socket implementation of the Zephyr CAN API. SocketCAN brings the convenience of the well-known BSD Socket API to Controller Area Networks. It is compatible with the Linux SocketCAN implementation, where many other high-level CAN projects build on top. Note that frames are routed to the network stack instead of passed directly, which adds some computation and memory overhead.

Samples

We have two ready-to-build samples demonstrating use of the Zephyr CAN API Zephyr CAN counter sample and SocketCAN sample.

CAN Controller API Reference

group can_interface

CAN Interface.

CAN controller configuration

int can_get_core_clock(const struct device *dev, uint32_t *rate)

Get the CAN core clock rate.

Returns the CAN core clock rate. One time quantum is 1/(core clock rate).

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • rate[out] CAN core clock rate in Hz.

Returns

0 on success, or a negative error code on error

int can_get_max_bitrate(const struct device *dev, uint32_t *max_bitrate)

Get maximum supported bitrate.

Get the maximum supported bitrate for the CAN controller/transceiver combination.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • max_bitrate[out] Maximum supported bitrate in bits/s

Return values
  • -EIO – General input/output error.

  • -ENOSYS – If this function is not implemented by the driver.

const struct can_timing *can_get_timing_min(const struct device *dev)

Get the minimum supported timing parameter values.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Returns

Pointer to the minimum supported timing parameter values.

const struct can_timing *can_get_timing_max(const struct device *dev)

Get the maximum supported timing parameter values.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Returns

Pointer to the maximum supported timing parameter values.

int can_calc_timing(const struct device *dev, struct can_timing *res, uint32_t bitrate, uint16_t sample_pnt)

Calculate timing parameters from bitrate and sample point.

Calculate the timing parameters from a given bitrate in bits/s and the sampling point in permill (1/1000) of the entire bit time. The bitrate must always match perfectly. If no result can be reached for the given parameters, -EINVAL is returned.

Note

The requested sample_pnt will not always be matched perfectly. The algorithm calculates the best possible match.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • res[out] Result is written into the can_timing struct provided.

  • bitrate – Target bitrate in bits/s.

  • sample_pnt – Sampling point in permill of the entire bit time.

Return values
  • 0 – or positive sample point error on success.

  • -EINVAL – if the requested bitrate or sample point is out of range.

  • -ENOTSUP – if the requested bitrate is not supported.

  • -EIO – if can_get_core_clock() is not available.

const struct can_timing *can_get_timing_data_min(const struct device *dev)

Get the minimum supported timing parameter values for the data phase.

Same as can_get_timing_min() but for the minimum values for the data phase.

Note

CONFIG_CAN_FD_MODE must be selected for this function to be available.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Returns

Pointer to the minimum supported timing parameter values, or NULL if CAN-FD support is not implemented by the driver.

const struct can_timing *can_get_timing_data_max(const struct device *dev)

Get the maximum supported timing parameter values for the data phase.

Same as can_get_timing_max() but for the maximum values for the data phase.

Note

CONFIG_CAN_FD_MODE must be selected for this function to be available.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Returns

Pointer to the maximum supported timing parameter values, or NULL if CAN-FD support is not implemented by the driver.

int can_calc_timing_data(const struct device *dev, struct can_timing *res, uint32_t bitrate, uint16_t sample_pnt)

Calculate timing parameters for the data phase.

Same as can_calc_timing() but with the maximum and minimum values from the data phase.

Note

CONFIG_CAN_FD_MODE must be selected for this function to be available.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • res[out] Result is written into the can_timing struct provided.

  • bitrate – Target bitrate for the data phase in bits/s

  • sample_pnt – Sampling point for the data phase in permille of the entire bit time.

Return values
  • 0 – or positive sample point error on success.

  • -EINVAL – if the requested bitrate or sample point is out of range.

  • -ENOTSUP – if the requested bitrate is not supported.

  • -EIO – if can_get_core_clock() is not available.

int can_set_timing_data(const struct device *dev, const struct can_timing *timing_data)

Configure the bus timing for the data phase of a CAN-FD controller.

If the sjw equals CAN_SJW_NO_CHANGE, the sjw parameter is not changed.

See also

can_set_timing()

Note

CONFIG_CAN_FD_MODE must be selected for this function to be available.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • timing_data – Bus timings for data phase

Return values
  • 0 – If successful.

  • -EBUSY – if the CAN controller is not in stopped state.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to configure device.

  • -ENOSYS – if CAN-FD support is not implemented by the driver.

int can_set_bitrate_data(const struct device *dev, uint32_t bitrate_data)

Set the bitrate for the data phase of the CAN-FD controller.

CAN in Automation (CiA) 301 v4.2.0 recommends a sample point location of 87.5% percent for all bitrates. However, some CAN controllers have difficulties meeting this for higher bitrates.

This function defaults to using a sample point of 75.0% for bitrates over 800 kbit/s, 80.0% for bitrates over 500 kbit/s, and 87.5% for all other bitrates. This is in line with the sample point locations used by the Linux kernel.

Note

CONFIG_CAN_FD_MODE must be selected for this function to be available.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • bitrate_data – Desired data phase bitrate.

Return values
  • 0 – If successful.

  • -EBUSY – if the CAN controller is not in stopped state.

  • -EINVAL – if the requested bitrate is out of range.

  • -ENOTSUP – if the requested bitrate not supported by the CAN controller/transceiver combination.

  • -ERANGE – if the resulting sample point is off by more than +/- 5%.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to set bitrate.

int can_calc_prescaler(const struct device *dev, struct can_timing *timing, uint32_t bitrate)

Fill in the prescaler value for a given bitrate and timing.

Fill the prescaler value in the timing struct. The sjw, prop_seg, phase_seg1 and phase_seg2 must be given.

The returned bitrate error is remainder of the division of the clock rate by the bitrate times the timing segments.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • timing – Result is written into the can_timing struct provided.

  • bitrate – Target bitrate.

Return values
  • 0 – or positive bitrate error.

  • Negative – error code on error.

int can_set_timing(const struct device *dev, const struct can_timing *timing)

Configure the bus timing of a CAN controller.

If the sjw equals CAN_SJW_NO_CHANGE, the sjw parameter is not changed.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • timing – Bus timings.

Return values
  • 0 – If successful.

  • -EBUSY – if the CAN controller is not in stopped state.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to configure device.

int can_get_capabilities(const struct device *dev, can_mode_t *cap)

Get the supported modes of the CAN controller.

The returned capabilities may not necessarily be supported at the same time (e.g. some CAN controllers support both CAN_MODE_LOOPBACK and CAN_MODE_LISTENONLY, but not at the same time).

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • cap[out] Supported capabilities.

Return values
  • 0 – If successful.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to get capabilities.

int can_start(const struct device *dev)

Start the CAN controller.

Bring the CAN controller out of CAN_STATE_STOPPED. This will reset the RX/TX error counters, enable the CAN controller to participate in CAN communication, and enable the CAN tranceiver, if supported.

See also

can_stop()

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Return values
  • 0 – if successful.

  • -EALREADY – if the device is already started.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to start device.

int can_stop(const struct device *dev)

Stop the CAN controller.

Bring the CAN controller into CAN_STATE_STOPPED. This will disallow the CAN controller from participating in CAN communication, abort any pending CAN frame transmissions, and disable the CAN transceiver, if supported.

See also

can_start()

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Return values
  • 0 – if successful.

  • -EALREADY – if the device is already stopped.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to stop device.

int can_set_mode(const struct device *dev, can_mode_t mode)

Set the CAN controller to the given operation mode.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • mode – Operation mode.

Return values
  • 0 – If successful.

  • -EBUSY – if the CAN controller is not in stopped state.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to configure device.

int can_set_bitrate(const struct device *dev, uint32_t bitrate)

Set the bitrate of the CAN controller.

CAN in Automation (CiA) 301 v4.2.0 recommends a sample point location of 87.5% percent for all bitrates. However, some CAN controllers have difficulties meeting this for higher bitrates.

This function defaults to using a sample point of 75.0% for bitrates over 800 kbit/s, 80.0% for bitrates over 500 kbit/s, and 87.5% for all other bitrates. This is in line with the sample point locations used by the Linux kernel.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • bitrate – Desired arbitration phase bitrate.

Return values
  • 0 – If successful.

  • -EBUSY – if the CAN controller is not in stopped state.

  • -EINVAL – if the requested bitrate is out of range.

  • -ENOTSUP – if the requested bitrate not supported by the CAN controller/transceiver combination.

  • -ERANGE – if the resulting sample point is off by more than +/- 5%.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to set bitrate.

CAN_SJW_NO_CHANGE

Synchronization Jump Width (SJW) value to indicate that the SJW should not be changed by the timing calculation.

Transmitting CAN frames

int can_send(const struct device *dev, const struct can_frame *frame, k_timeout_t timeout, can_tx_callback_t callback, void *user_data)

Queue a CAN frame for transmission on the CAN bus.

Queue a CAN frame for transmission on the CAN bus with optional timeout and completion callback function.

Queued CAN frames are transmitted in order according to the their priority:

  • The lower the CAN-ID, the higher the priority.

  • Data frames have higher priority than Remote Transmission Request (RTR) frames with identical CAN-IDs.

  • Frames with standard (11-bit) identifiers have higher priority than frames with extended (29-bit) identifiers with identical base IDs (the higher 11 bits of the extended identifier).

  • Transmission order for queued frames with the same priority is hardware dependent.

By default, the CAN controller will automatically retry transmission in case of lost bus arbitration or missing acknowledge. Some CAN controllers support disabling automatic retransmissions via CAN_MODE_ONE_SHOT.

Note

If transmitting segmented messages spanning multiple CAN frames with identical CAN-IDs, the sender must ensure to only queue one frame at a time if FIFO order is required.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • frame – CAN frame to transmit.

  • timeout – Timeout waiting for a empty TX mailbox or K_FOREVER.

  • callback – Optional callback for when the frame was sent or a transmission error occurred. If NULL, this function is blocking until frame is sent. The callback must be NULL if called from user mode.

  • user_data – User data to pass to callback function.

Return values
  • 0 – if successful.

  • -EINVAL – if an invalid parameter was passed to the function.

  • -ENOTSUP – if an unsupported parameter was passed to the function.

  • -ENETDOWN – if the CAN controller is in stopped state.

  • -ENETUNREACH – if the CAN controller is in bus-off state.

  • -EBUSY – if CAN bus arbitration was lost (only applicable if automatic retransmissions are disabled).

  • -EIO – if a general transmit error occurred (e.g. missing ACK if automatic retransmissions are disabled).

  • -EAGAIN – on timeout.

Receiving CAN frames

static inline int can_add_rx_filter(const struct device *dev, can_rx_callback_t callback, void *user_data, const struct can_filter *filter)

Add a callback function for a given CAN filter.

Add a callback to CAN identifiers specified by a filter. When a received CAN frame matching the filter is received by the CAN controller, the callback function is called in interrupt context.

If a frame matches more than one attached filter, the priority of the match is hardware dependent.

The same callback function can be used for multiple filters.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • callback – This function is called by the CAN controller driver whenever a frame matching the filter is received.

  • user_data – User data to pass to callback function.

  • filter – Pointer to a can_filter structure defining the filter.

Return values
  • filter_id – on success.

  • -ENOSPC – if there are no free filters.

  • -EINVAL – if the requested filter type is invalid.

  • -ENOTSUP – if the requested filter type is not supported.

int can_add_rx_filter_msgq(const struct device *dev, struct k_msgq *msgq, const struct can_filter *filter)

Wrapper function for adding a message queue for a given filter.

Wrapper function for can_add_rx_filter() which puts received CAN frames matching the filter in a message queue instead of calling a callback.

If a frame matches more than one attached filter, the priority of the match is hardware dependent.

The same message queue can be used for multiple filters.

Note

The message queue must be initialized before calling this function and the caller must have appropriate permissions on it.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • msgq – Pointer to the already initialized k_msgq struct.

  • filter – Pointer to a can_filter structure defining the filter.

Return values
  • filter_id – on success.

  • -ENOSPC – if there are no free filters.

  • -ENOTSUP – if the requested filter type is not supported.

void can_remove_rx_filter(const struct device *dev, int filter_id)

Remove a CAN RX filter.

This routine removes a CAN RX filter based on the filter ID returned by can_add_rx_filter() or can_add_rx_filter_msgq().

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • filter_id – Filter ID

int can_get_max_filters(const struct device *dev, bool ide)

Get maximum number of RX filters.

Get the maximum number of concurrent RX filters for the CAN controller.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • ide – Get the maximum standard (11-bit) CAN ID filters if false, or extended (29-bit) CAN ID filters if true.

Return values
  • Positive – number of maximum concurrent filters.

  • -EIO – General input/output error.

  • -ENOSYS – If this function is not implemented by the driver.

CAN_MSGQ_DEFINE(name, max_frames)

Statically define and initialize a CAN RX message queue.

The message queue’s ring buffer contains space for max_frames CAN frames.

Parameters
  • name – Name of the message queue.

  • max_frames – Maximum number of CAN frames that can be queued.

CAN bus error reporting and handling

int can_get_state(const struct device *dev, enum can_state *state, struct can_bus_err_cnt *err_cnt)

Get current CAN controller state.

Returns the current state and optionally the error counter values of the CAN controller.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • state[out] Pointer to the state destination enum or NULL.

  • err_cnt[out] Pointer to the err_cnt destination structure or NULL.

Return values
  • 0 – If successful.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to get state.

int can_recover(const struct device *dev, k_timeout_t timeout)

Recover from bus-off state.

Recover the CAN controller from bus-off state to error-active state.

Note

CONFIG_CAN_AUTO_BUS_OFF_RECOVERY must be deselected for this function to be available.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • timeout – Timeout for waiting for the recovery or K_FOREVER.

Return values
  • 0 – on success.

  • -ENETDOWN – if the CAN controller is in stopped state.

  • -EAGAIN – on timeout.

static inline void can_set_state_change_callback(const struct device *dev, can_state_change_callback_t callback, void *user_data)

Set a callback for CAN controller state change events.

Set the callback for CAN controller state change events. The callback function will be called in interrupt context.

Only one callback can be registered per controller. Calling this function again overrides any previously registered callback.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • callback – Callback function.

  • user_data – User data to pass to callback function.

CAN utility functions

static inline uint8_t can_dlc_to_bytes(uint8_t dlc)

Convert from Data Length Code (DLC) to the number of data bytes.

Parameters
  • dlc – Data Length Code (DLC).

Return values

Number – of bytes.

static inline uint8_t can_bytes_to_dlc(uint8_t num_bytes)

Convert from number of bytes to Data Length Code (DLC)

Parameters
  • num_bytes – Number of bytes.

Return values

Data – Length Code (DLC).

CAN frame definitions

CAN_STD_ID_MASK

Bit mask for a standard (11-bit) CAN identifier.

CAN_MAX_STD_ID

Maximum value for a standard (11-bit) CAN identifier.

CAN_EXT_ID_MASK

Bit mask for an extended (29-bit) CAN identifier.

CAN_MAX_EXT_ID

Maximum value for an extended (29-bit) CAN identifier.

CAN_MAX_DLC

Maximum data length code for CAN 2.0A/2.0B.

CANFD_MAX_DLC

Maximum data length code for CAN-FD.

CAN controller mode flags

CAN_MODE_NORMAL

Normal mode.

CAN_MODE_LOOPBACK

Controller is in loopback mode (receives own frames).

CAN_MODE_LISTENONLY

Controller is not allowed to send dominant bits.

CAN_MODE_FD

Controller allows transmitting/receiving CAN-FD frames.

CAN_MODE_ONE_SHOT

Controller does not retransmit in case of lost arbitration or missing ACK

CAN_MODE_3_SAMPLES

Controller uses triple sampling mode

CAN frame flags

CAN_FRAME_IDE

Frame uses extended (29-bit) CAN ID

CAN_FRAME_RTR

Frame is a Remote Transmission Request (RTR)

CAN_FRAME_FDF

Frame uses CAN-FD format (FDF)

CAN_FRAME_BRS

Frame uses CAN-FD Baud Rate Switch (BRS). Only valid in combination with CAN_FRAME_FDF.

CAN filter flags

CAN_FILTER_IDE

Filter matches frames with extended (29-bit) CAN IDs

CAN_FILTER_RTR

Filter matches Remote Transmission Request (RTR) frames

CAN_FILTER_DATA

Filter matches data frames

Defines

CAN_STATS_BIT0_ERROR_INC(dev_)

Increment the bit0 error counter for a CAN device.

The bit0 error counter is incremented when the CAN controller is unable to transmit a dominant bit.

Parameters
  • dev_ – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

CAN_STATS_BIT1_ERROR_INC(dev_)

Increment the bit1 (recessive) error counter for a CAN device.

The bit1 error counter is incremented when the CAN controller is unable to transmit a recessive bit.

Parameters
  • dev_ – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

CAN_STATS_STUFF_ERROR_INC(dev_)

Increment the stuffing error counter for a CAN device.

The stuffing error counter is incremented when the CAN controller detects a bit stuffing error.

Parameters
  • dev_ – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

CAN_STATS_CRC_ERROR_INC(dev_)

Increment the CRC error counter for a CAN device.

The CRC error counter is incremented when the CAN controller detects a frame with an invalid CRC.

Parameters
  • dev_ – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

CAN_STATS_FORM_ERROR_INC(dev_)

Increment the form error counter for a CAN device.

The form error counter is incremented when the CAN controller detects a fixed-form bit field containing illegal bits.

Parameters
  • dev_ – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

CAN_STATS_ACK_ERROR_INC(dev_)

Increment the acknowledge error counter for a CAN device.

The acknowledge error counter is incremented when the CAN controller does not monitor a dominant bit in the ACK slot.

Parameters
  • dev_ – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

CAN_DEVICE_DT_DEFINE(node_id, init_fn, pm, data, config, level, prio, api, ...)

Like DEVICE_DT_DEFINE() with CAN device specifics.

Defines a device which implements the CAN API. May generate a custom device_state container struct and init_fn wrapper when needed depending on CONFIG_CAN_STATS .

Parameters
  • node_id – The devicetree node identifier.

  • init_fn – Name of the init function of the driver.

  • pm – PM device resources reference (NULL if device does not use PM).

  • data – Pointer to the device’s private data.

  • config – The address to the structure containing the configuration information for this instance of the driver.

  • level – The initialization level. See SYS_INIT() for details.

  • prio – Priority within the selected initialization level. See SYS_INIT() for details.

  • api – Provides an initial pointer to the API function struct used by the driver. Can be NULL.

CAN_DEVICE_DT_INST_DEFINE(inst, ...)

Like CAN_DEVICE_DT_DEFINE() for an instance of a DT_DRV_COMPAT compatible.

Parameters

Typedefs

typedef uint32_t can_mode_t

Provides a type to hold CAN controller configuration flags.

The lower 24 bits are reserved for common CAN controller mode flags. The upper 8 bits are reserved for CAN controller/driver specific flags.

See also

CAN_MODE_FLAGS.

typedef void (*can_tx_callback_t)(const struct device *dev, int error, void *user_data)

Defines the application callback handler function signature.

Param dev

Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Param error

Status of the performed send operation. See the list of return values for can_send() for value descriptions.

Param user_data

User data provided when the frame was sent.

typedef void (*can_rx_callback_t)(const struct device *dev, struct can_frame *frame, void *user_data)

Defines the application callback handler function signature for receiving.

Param dev

Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Param frame

Received frame.

Param user_data

User data provided when the filter was added.

typedef void (*can_state_change_callback_t)(const struct device *dev, enum can_state state, struct can_bus_err_cnt err_cnt, void *user_data)

Defines the state change callback handler function signature.

Param dev

Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Param state

State of the CAN controller.

Param err_cnt

CAN controller error counter values.

Param user_data

User data provided the callback was set.

Enums

enum can_state

Defines the state of the CAN controller.

Values:

enumerator CAN_STATE_ERROR_ACTIVE

Error-active state (RX/TX error count < 96).

enumerator CAN_STATE_ERROR_WARNING

Error-warning state (RX/TX error count < 128).

enumerator CAN_STATE_ERROR_PASSIVE

Error-passive state (RX/TX error count < 256).

enumerator CAN_STATE_BUS_OFF

Bus-off state (RX/TX error count >= 256).

enumerator CAN_STATE_STOPPED

CAN controller is stopped and does not participate in CAN communication.

struct can_frame
#include <can.h>

CAN frame structure.

Public Members

uint32_t id

Standard (11-bit) or extended (29-bit) CAN identifier.

uint8_t dlc

Data Length Code (DLC) indicating data length in bytes.

uint8_t flags

Flags.

See also

CAN_FRAME_FLAGS.

uint16_t timestamp

Captured value of the free-running timer in the CAN controller when this frame was received. The timer is incremented every bit time and captured at the start of frame bit (SOF).

Note

CONFIG_CAN_RX_TIMESTAMP must be selected for this field to be available.

union can_frame.[anonymous] [anonymous]

The frame payload data.

struct can_filter
#include <can.h>

CAN filter structure.

Public Members

uint32_t id

CAN identifier to match.

uint32_t mask

CAN identifier matching mask. If a bit in this mask is 0, the value of the corresponding bit in the id field is ignored by the filter.

uint8_t flags

Flags.

See also

CAN_FILTER_FLAGS.

struct can_bus_err_cnt
#include <can.h>

CAN controller error counters.

Public Members

uint8_t tx_err_cnt

Value of the CAN controller transmit error counter.

uint8_t rx_err_cnt

Value of the CAN controller receive error counter.

struct can_timing
#include <can.h>

CAN bus timing structure.

This struct is used to pass bus timing values to the configuration and bitrate calculation functions.

The propagation segment represents the time of the signal propagation. Phase segment 1 and phase segment 2 define the sampling point. The prop_seg and phase_seg1 values affect the sampling point in the same way and some controllers only have a register for the sum of those two. The sync segment always has a length of 1 time quantum (see below).

+---------+----------+------------+------------+
|sync_seg | prop_seg | phase_seg1 | phase_seg2 |
+---------+----------+------------+------------+
                                  ^
                            Sampling-Point

1 time quantum (tq) has the length of 1/(core_clock / prescaler). The bitrate is defined by the core clock divided by the prescaler and the sum of the segments:

br = (core_clock / prescaler) / (1 + prop_seg + phase_seg1 + phase_seg2)

The Synchronization Jump Width (SJW) defines the amount of time quanta the sample point can be moved. The sample point is moved when resynchronization is needed.

Public Members

uint16_t sjw

Synchronisation jump width.

uint16_t prop_seg

Propagation segment.

uint16_t phase_seg1

Phase segment 1.

uint16_t phase_seg2

Phase segment 2.

uint16_t prescaler

Prescaler value.

struct can_device_state
#include <can.h>

CAN specific device state which allows for CAN device class specific additions.

CAN Transceiver API Reference

group can_transceiver

CAN Transceiver Driver APIs.

Functions

static inline int can_transceiver_enable(const struct device *dev)

Enable CAN transceiver.

Enable the CAN transceiver.

See also

can_start()

Note

The CAN transceiver is controlled by the CAN controller driver and should not normally be controlled by the application.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Return values
  • 0 – If successful.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to enable device.

static inline int can_transceiver_disable(const struct device *dev)

Disable CAN transceiver.

Disable the CAN transceiver.

See also

can_stop()

Note

The CAN transceiver is controlled by the CAN controller driver and should not normally be controlled by the application.

Parameters
  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

Return values
  • 0 – If successful.

  • -EIO – General input/output error, failed to disable device.