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API Reference

group adc_interface

ADC driver APIs.


typedef enum adc_action (*adc_sequence_callback)(const struct device *dev, const struct adc_sequence *sequence, uint16_t sampling_index)

Type definition of the optional callback function to be called after a requested sampling is done.

  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • sequence – Pointer to the sequence structure that triggered the sampling. This parameter points to a copy of the structure that was supplied to the call that started the sampling sequence, thus it cannot be used with the CONTAINER_OF() macro to retrieve some other data associated with the sequence. Instead, the adc_sequence_options::user_data field should be used for such purpose.

  • sampling_index – Index (0-65535) of the sampling done.


Action to be performed by the driver. See adc_action.

typedef int (*adc_api_channel_setup)(const struct device *dev, const struct adc_channel_cfg *channel_cfg)

Type definition of ADC API function for configuring a channel. See adc_channel_setup() for argument descriptions.

typedef int (*adc_api_read)(const struct device *dev, const struct adc_sequence *sequence)

Type definition of ADC API function for setting a read request. See adc_read() for argument descriptions.

typedef int (*adc_api_read_async)(const struct device *dev, const struct adc_sequence *sequence, struct k_poll_signal *async)

Type definition of ADC API function for setting an asynchronous read request. See adc_read_async() for argument descriptions.


enum adc_gain

ADC channel gain factors.


enumerator ADC_GAIN_1_6

x 1/6.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_1_5

x 1/5.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_1_4

x 1/4.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_1_3

x 1/3.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_1_2

x 1/2.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_2_3

x 2/3.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_1

x 1.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_2

x 2.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_3

x 3.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_4

x 4.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_8

x 8.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_16

x 16.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_32

x 32.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_64

x 64.

enumerator ADC_GAIN_128

x 128.

enum adc_reference

ADC references.


enumerator ADC_REF_VDD_1


enumerator ADC_REF_VDD_1_2


enumerator ADC_REF_VDD_1_3


enumerator ADC_REF_VDD_1_4




enumerator ADC_REF_EXTERNAL0

External, input 0.

enumerator ADC_REF_EXTERNAL1

External, input 1.

enum adc_action

Action to be performed after a sampling is done.


enumerator ADC_ACTION_CONTINUE = 0

The sequence should be continued normally.


The sampling should be repeated. New samples or sample should be read from the ADC and written in the same place as the recent ones.


The sequence should be finished immediately.


int adc_gain_invert(enum adc_gain gain, int32_t *value)

Invert the application of gain to a measurement value.

For example, if the gain passed in is ADC_GAIN_1_6 and the referenced value is 10, the value after the function returns is 60.

  • gain – the gain used to amplify the input signal.

  • value – a pointer to a value that initially has the effect of the applied gain but has that effect removed when this function successfully returns. If the gain cannot be reversed the value remains unchanged.

Returns 0

if the gain was successfully reversed

Returns -EINVAL

if the gain could not be interpreted

static inline int adc_raw_to_millivolts(int32_t ref_mv, enum adc_gain gain, uint8_t resolution, int32_t *valp)

Convert a raw ADC value to millivolts.

This function performs the necessary conversion to transform a raw ADC measurement to a voltage in millivolts.

  • ref_mv – the reference voltage used for the measurement, in millivolts. This may be from adc_ref_internal() or a known external reference.

  • gain – the ADC gain configuration used to sample the input

  • resolution – the number of bits in the absolute value of the sample. For differential sampling this may be one less than the resolution in struct adc_sequence.

  • valp – pointer to the raw measurement value on input, and the corresponding millivolt value on successful conversion. If conversion fails the stored value is left unchanged.

Returns 0

on successful conversion

Returns -EINVAL

if the gain is not reversible

int adc_channel_setup(const struct device *dev, const struct adc_channel_cfg *channel_cfg)

Configure an ADC channel.

It is required to call this function and configure each channel before it is selected for a read request.

  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • channel_cfg – Channel configuration.

Returns 0

On success.

Returns -EINVAL

If a parameter with an invalid value has been provided.

int adc_read(const struct device *dev, const struct adc_sequence *sequence)

Set a read request.

If invoked from user mode, any sequence struct options for callback must be NULL.

  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • sequence – Structure specifying requested sequence of samplings.

Returns 0

On success.

Returns -EINVAL

If a parameter with an invalid value has been provided.

Returns -ENOMEM

If the provided buffer is to small to hold the results of all requested samplings.

Returns -ENOTSUP

If the requested mode of operation is not supported.

Returns -EBUSY

If another sampling was triggered while the previous one was still in progress. This may occur only when samplings are done with intervals, and it indicates that the selected interval was too small. All requested samples are written in the buffer, but at least some of them were taken with an extra delay compared to what was scheduled.

int adc_read_async(const struct device *dev, const struct adc_sequence *sequence, struct k_poll_signal *async)

Set an asynchronous read request.

If invoked from user mode, any sequence struct options for callback must be NULL.


This function is available only if CONFIG_ADC_ASYNC is selected.

  • dev – Pointer to the device structure for the driver instance.

  • sequence – Structure specifying requested sequence of samplings.

  • async – Pointer to a valid and ready to be signaled struct k_poll_signal. (Note: if NULL this function will not notify the end of the transaction, and whether it went successfully or not).


0 on success, negative error code otherwise. See adc_read() for a list of possible error codes.

static inline uint16_t adc_ref_internal(const struct device *dev)

Get the internal reference voltage.

Returns the voltage corresponding to ADC_REF_INTERNAL, measured in millivolts.


a positive value is the reference voltage value. Returns zero if reference voltage information is not available.

struct adc_channel_cfg
#include <adc.h>

Structure for specifying the configuration of an ADC channel.

Public Members

enum adc_gain gain

Gain selection.

enum adc_reference reference

Reference selection.

uint16_t acquisition_time

Acquisition time. Use the ADC_ACQ_TIME macro to compose the value for this field or pass ADC_ACQ_TIME_DEFAULT to use the default setting for a given hardware (e.g. when the hardware does not allow to configure the acquisition time). Particular drivers do not necessarily support all the possible units. Value range is 0-16383 for a given unit.

uint8_t channel_id

Channel identifier. This value primarily identifies the channel within the ADC API - when a read request is done, the corresponding bit in the “channels” field of the “adc_sequence” structure must be set to include this channel in the sampling. For hardware that does not allow selection of analog inputs for given channels, but rather have dedicated ones, this value also selects the physical ADC input to be used in the sampling. Otherwise, when it is needed to explicitly select an analog input for the channel, or two inputs when the channel is a differential one, the selection is done in “input_positive” and “input_negative” fields. Particular drivers indicate which one of the above two cases they support by selecting or not a special hidden Kconfig option named ADC_CONFIGURABLE_INPUTS. If this option is not selected, the macro CONFIG_ADC_CONFIGURABLE_INPUTS is not defined and consequently the mentioned two fields are not present in this structure. While this API allows identifiers from range 0-31, particular drivers may support only a limited number of channel identifiers (dependent on the underlying hardware capabilities or configured via a dedicated Kconfig option).

uint8_t differential

Channel type: single-ended or differential.

struct adc_sequence_options
#include <adc.h>

Structure defining additional options for an ADC sampling sequence.

Public Members

uint32_t interval_us

Interval between consecutive samplings (in microseconds), 0 means sample as fast as possible, without involving any timer. The accuracy of this interval is dependent on the implementation of a given driver. The default routine that handles the intervals uses a kernel timer for this purpose, thus, it has the accuracy of the kernel’s system clock. Particular drivers may use some dedicated hardware timers and achieve a better precision.

adc_sequence_callback callback

Callback function to be called after each sampling is done. Optional - set to NULL if it is not needed.

void *user_data

Pointer to user data. It can be used to associate the sequence with any other data that is needed in the callback function.

uint16_t extra_samplings

Number of extra samplings to perform (the total number of samplings is 1 + extra_samplings).

struct adc_sequence
#include <adc.h>

Structure defining an ADC sampling sequence.

Public Members

const struct adc_sequence_options *options

Pointer to a structure defining additional options for the sequence. If NULL, the sequence consists of a single sampling.

uint32_t channels

Bit-mask indicating the channels to be included in each sampling of this sequence. All selected channels must be configured with adc_channel_setup() before they are used in a sequence.

void *buffer

Pointer to a buffer where the samples are to be written. Samples from subsequent samplings are written sequentially in the buffer. The number of samples written for each sampling is determined by the number of channels selected in the “channels” field. The buffer must be of an appropriate size, taking into account the number of selected channels and the ADC resolution used, as well as the number of samplings contained in the sequence.

size_t buffer_size

Specifies the actual size of the buffer pointed by the “buffer” field (in bytes). The driver must ensure that samples are not written beyond the limit and it must return an error if the buffer turns out to be not large enough to hold all the requested samples.

uint8_t resolution

ADC resolution. For single-ended channels the sample values are from range: 0 .. 2^resolution - 1, for differential ones:

  • 2^(resolution-1) .. 2^(resolution-1) - 1.

uint8_t oversampling

Oversampling setting. Each sample is averaged from 2^oversampling conversion results. This feature may be unsupported by a given ADC hardware, or in a specific mode (e.g. when sampling multiple channels).

bool calibrate

Perform calibration before the reading is taken if requested.

The impact of channel configuration on the calibration process is specific to the underlying hardware. ADC implementations that do not support calibration should ignore this flag.

struct adc_driver_api
#include <adc.h>

ADC driver API.

This is the mandatory API any ADC driver needs to expose.