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Resource Management

There are various situations where it’s necessary to coordinate resource use at runtime among multiple clients. These include power rails, clocks, other peripherals, and binary device power management. The complexity of properly managing multiple consumers of a device in a multithreaded system, especially when transitions may be asynchronous, suggests that a shared implementation is desirable.

Zephyr provides managers for several coordination policies. These managers are embedded into services that use them for specific functions.

On-Off Manager

An on-off manager supports an arbitrary number of clients of a service which has a binary state. Example applications are power rails, clocks, and binary device power management.

The manager has the following properties:

  • The stable states are off, on, and error. The service always begins in the off state. The service may also be in a transition to a given state.

  • The core operations are request (add a dependency) and release (remove a dependency). Supporting operations are reset (to clear an error state) and cancel (to reclaim client data from an in-progress transition). The service manages the state based on calls to functions that initiate these operations.

  • The service transitions from off to on when first client request is received.

  • The service transitions from on to off when last client release is received.

  • Each service configuration provides functions that implement the transition from off to on, from on to off, and optionally from an error state to off. Transitions must be invokable from both thread and interrupt context.

  • The request and reset operations are asynchronous using Asynchronous Notification APIs. Both operations may be cancelled, but cancellation has no effect on the in-progress transition.

  • Requests to turn on may be queued while a transition to off is in progress: when the service has turned off successfully it will be immediately turned on again (where context allows) and waiting clients notified when the start completes.

Requests are reference counted, but not tracked. That means clients are responsible for recording whether their requests were accepted, and for initiating a release only if they have previously successfully completed a request. Improper use of the API can cause an active client to be shut out, and the manager does not maintain a record of specific clients that have been granted a request.

Failures in executing a transition are recorded and inhibit further requests or releases until the manager is reset. Pending requests are notified (and cancelled) when errors are discovered.

Transition operation completion notifications are provided through Asynchronous Notification APIs.

Clients and other components interested in tracking all service state changes, including when a service begins turning off or enters an error state, can be informed of state transitions by registering a monitor with onoff_monitor_register(). Notification of changes are provided before issuing completion notifications associated with the new state.

Note

A generic API may be implemented by multiple drivers where the common case is asynchronous. The on-off client structure may be an appropriate solution for the generic API. Where drivers that can guarantee synchronous context-independent transitions a driver may use onoff_sync_service and its supporting API rather than onoff_manager, with only a small reduction in functionality (primarily no support for the monitor API).

group resource_mgmt_onoff_apis

Defines

ONOFF_FLAG_ERROR

Flag indicating an error state.

Error states are cleared using onoff_reset().

ONOFF_FLAG_ONOFF
ONOFF_FLAG_TRANSITION
ONOFF_STATE_MASK

Mask used to isolate bits defining the service state.

Mask a value with this then test for ONOFF_FLAG_ERROR to determine whether the machine has an unfixed error, or compare against ONOFF_STATE_ON, ONOFF_STATE_OFF, ONOFF_STATE_TO_ON, ONOFF_STATE_TO_OFF, or ONOFF_STATE_RESETTING.

ONOFF_STATE_OFF

Value exposed by ONOFF_STATE_MASK when service is off.

ONOFF_STATE_ON

Value exposed by ONOFF_STATE_MASK when service is on.

ONOFF_STATE_ERROR

Value exposed by ONOFF_STATE_MASK when the service is in an error state (and not in the process of resetting its state).

ONOFF_STATE_TO_ON

Value exposed by ONOFF_STATE_MASK when service is transitioning to on.

ONOFF_STATE_TO_OFF

Value exposed by ONOFF_STATE_MASK when service is transitioning to off.

ONOFF_STATE_RESETTING

Value exposed by ONOFF_STATE_MASK when service is in the process of resetting.

ONOFF_TRANSITIONS_INITIALIZER(_start, _stop, _reset)

Initializer for a onoff_transitions object.

Parameters
  • _start: a function used to transition from off to on state.

  • _stop: a function used to transition from on to off state.

  • _reset: a function used to clear errors and force the service to an off state. Can be null.

ONOFF_MANAGER_INITIALIZER(_transitions)
ONOFF_CLIENT_EXTENSION_POS

Identify region of sys_notify flags available for containing services.

Bits of the flags field of the sys_notify structure contained within the queued_operation structure at and above this position may be used by extensions to the onoff_client structure.

These bits are intended for use by containing service implementations to record client-specific information and are subject to other conditions of use specified on the sys_notify API.

Typedefs

typedef void (*onoff_notify_fn)(struct onoff_manager *mgr, int res)

Signature used to notify an on-off manager that a transition has completed.

Functions of this type are passed to service-specific transition functions to be used to report the completion of the operation. The functions may be invoked from any context.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager for which transition was requested.

  • res: the result of the transition. This shall be non-negative on success, or a negative error code. If an error is indicated the service shall enter an error state.

typedef void (*onoff_transition_fn)(struct onoff_manager *mgr, onoff_notify_fn notify)

Signature used by service implementations to effect a transition.

Service definitions use two required function pointers of this type to be notified that a transition is required, and a third optional one to reset the service when it is in an error state.

The start function will be called only from the off state.

The stop function will be called only from the on state.

The reset function (where supported) will be called only when onoff_has_error() returns true.

Note

All transitions functions must be isr-ok.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager for which transition was requested.

  • notify: the function to be invoked when the transition has completed. If the transition is synchronous, notify shall be invoked by the implementation before the transition function returns. Otherwise the implementation shall capture this parameter and invoke it when the transition completes.

typedef void (*onoff_client_callback)(struct onoff_manager *mgr, struct onoff_client *cli, uint32_t state, int res)

Signature used to notify an on-off service client of the completion of an operation.

These functions may be invoked from any context including pre-kernel, ISR, or cooperative or pre-emptible threads. Compatible functions must be isr-ok and not sleep.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager for which the operation was initiated. This may be null if the on-off service uses synchronous transitions.

  • cli: the client structure passed to the function that initiated the operation.

  • state: the state of the machine at the time of completion, restricted by ONOFF_STATE_MASK. ONOFF_FLAG_ERROR must be checked independently of whether res is negative as a machine error may indicate that all future operations except onoff_reset() will fail.

  • res: the result of the operation. Expected values are service-specific, but the value shall be non-negative if the operation succeeded, and negative if the operation failed. If res is negative ONOFF_FLAG_ERROR will be set in state, but if res is non-negative ONOFF_FLAG_ERROR may still be set in state.

typedef void (*onoff_monitor_callback)(struct onoff_manager *mgr, struct onoff_monitor *mon, uint32_t state, int res)

Signature used to notify a monitor of an onoff service of errors or completion of a state transition.

This is similar to onoff_client_callback but provides information about all transitions, not just ones associated with a specific client. Monitor callbacks are invoked before any completion notifications associated with the state change are made.

These functions may be invoked from any context including pre-kernel, ISR, or cooperative or pre-emptible threads. Compatible functions must be isr-ok and not sleep.

The callback is permitted to unregister itself from the manager, but must not register or unregister any other monitors.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager for which a transition has completed.

  • mon: the monitor instance through which this notification arrived.

  • state: the state of the machine at the time of completion, restricted by ONOFF_STATE_MASK. All valid states may be observed.

  • res: the result of the operation. Expected values are service- and state-specific, but the value shall be non-negative if the operation succeeded, and negative if the operation failed.

Functions

int onoff_manager_init(struct onoff_manager *mgr, const struct onoff_transitions *transitions)

Initialize an on-off service to off state.

This function must be invoked exactly once per service instance, by the infrastructure that provides the service, and before any other on-off service API is invoked on the service.

This function should never be invoked by clients of an on-off service.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager definition object to be initialized.

  • transitions: pointer to a structure providing transition functions. The referenced object must persist as long as the manager can be referenced.

Return Value
  • 0: on success

  • -EINVAL: if start, stop, or flags are invalid

bool onoff_has_error(const struct onoff_manager *mgr)

Test whether an on-off service has recorded an error.

This function can be used to determine whether the service has recorded an error. Errors may be cleared by invoking onoff_reset().

This is an unlocked convenience function suitable for use only when it is known that no other process might invoke an operation that transitions the service between an error and non-error state.

Return

true if and only if the service has an uncleared error.

int onoff_request(struct onoff_manager *mgr, struct onoff_client *cli)

Request a reservation to use an on-off service.

The return value indicates the success or failure of an attempt to initiate an operation to request the resource be made available. If initiation of the operation succeeds the result of the request operation is provided through the configured client notification method, possibly before this call returns.

Note that the call to this function may succeed in a case where the actual request fails. Always check the operation completion result.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager that will be used.

  • cli: a non-null pointer to client state providing instructions on synchronous expectations and how to notify the client when the request completes. Behavior is undefined if client passes a pointer object associated with an incomplete service operation.

Return Value
  • non-negative: the observed state of the machine at the time the request was processed, if successful.

  • -EIO: if service has recorded an an error.

  • -EINVAL: if the parameters are invalid.

  • -EAGAIN: if the reference count would overflow.

int onoff_release(struct onoff_manager *mgr)

Release a reserved use of an on-off service.

This synchronously releases the caller’s previous request. If the last request is released the manager will initiate a transition to off, which can be observed by registering an onoff_monitor.

Note

Behavior is undefined if this is not paired with a preceding onoff_request() call that completed successfully.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager for which a request was successful.

Return Value
  • non-negative: the observed state (ONOFF_STATE_ON) of the machine at the time of the release, if the release succeeds.

  • -EIO: if service has recorded an an error.

  • -ENOTSUP: if the machine is not in a state that permits release.

int onoff_cancel(struct onoff_manager *mgr, struct onoff_client *cli)

Attempt to cancel an in-progress client operation.

It may be that a client has initiated an operation but needs to shut down before the operation has completed. For example, when a request was made and the need is no longer present.

Cancelling is supported only for onoff_request() and onoff_reset() operations, and is a synchronous operation. Be aware that any transition that was initiated on behalf of the client will continue to progress to completion: it is only notification of transition completion that may be eliminated. If there are no active requests when a transition to on completes the manager will initiate a transition to off.

Client notification does not occur for cancelled operations.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager for which an operation is to be cancelled.

  • cli: a pointer to the same client state that was provided when the operation to be cancelled was issued.

Return Value
  • non-negative: the observed state of the machine at the time of the cancellation, if the cancellation succeeds. On successful cancellation ownership of *cli reverts to the client.

  • -EINVAL: if the parameters are invalid.

  • -EALREADY: if cli was not a record of an uncompleted notification at the time the cancellation was processed. This likely indicates that the operation and client notification had already completed.

int onoff_cancel_or_release(struct onoff_manager *mgr, struct onoff_client *cli)

Helper function to safely cancel a request.

Some applications may want to issue requests on an asynchronous event (such as connection to a USB bus) and to release on a paired event (such as loss of connection to a USB bus). Applications cannot precisely determine that an in-progress request is still pending without using onoff_monitor and carefully avoiding race conditions.

This function is a helper that attempts to cancel the operation and issues a release if cancellation fails because the request was completed. This synchronously ensures that ownership of the client data reverts to the client so is available for a future request.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager for which an operation is to be cancelled.

  • cli: a pointer to the same client state that was provided when onoff_request() was invoked. Behavior is undefined if this is a pointer to client data associated with an onoff_reset() request.

Return Value
  • ONOFF_STATE_TO_ON: if the cancellation occurred before the transition completed.

  • ONOFF_STATE_ON: if the cancellation occurred after the transition completed.

  • -EINVAL: if the parameters are invalid.

  • negative: other errors produced by onoff_release().

int onoff_reset(struct onoff_manager *mgr, struct onoff_client *cli)

Clear errors on an on-off service and reset it to its off state.

A service can only be reset when it is in an error state as indicated by onoff_has_error().

The return value indicates the success or failure of an attempt to initiate an operation to reset the resource. If initiation of the operation succeeds the result of the reset operation itself is provided through the configured client notification method, possibly before this call returns. Multiple clients may request a reset; all are notified when it is complete.

Note that the call to this function may succeed in a case where the actual reset fails. Always check the operation completion result.

Note

Due to the conditions on state transition all incomplete asynchronous operations will have been informed of the error when it occurred. There need be no concern about dangling requests left after a reset completes.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager to be reset.

  • cli: pointer to client state, including instructions on how to notify the client when reset completes. Behavior is undefined if cli references an object associated with an incomplete service operation.

Return Value
  • non-negative: the observed state of the machine at the time of the reset, if the reset succeeds.

  • -ENOTSUP: if reset is not supported by the service.

  • -EINVAL: if the parameters are invalid.

  • -EALREADY: if the service does not have a recorded error.

int onoff_monitor_register(struct onoff_manager *mgr, struct onoff_monitor *mon)

Add a monitor of state changes for a manager.

Return

non-negative on successful addition, or a negative error code.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager for which a state changes are to be monitored.

  • mon: a linkable node providing a non-null callback to be invoked on state changes.

int onoff_monitor_unregister(struct onoff_manager *mgr, struct onoff_monitor *mon)

Remove a monitor of state changes from a manager.

Return

non-negative on successful removal, or a negative error code.

Parameters
  • mgr: the manager for which a state changes are to be monitored.

  • mon: a linkable node providing the callback to be invoked on state changes.

int onoff_sync_lock(struct onoff_sync_service *srv, k_spinlock_key_t *keyp)

Lock a synchronous onoff service and provide its state.

Note

If an error state is returned it is the caller’s responsibility to decide whether to preserve it (finalize with the same error state) or clear the error (finalize with a non-error result).

Return

negative if the service is in an error state, otherwise the number of active requests at the time the lock was taken. The lock is held on return regardless of whether a negative state is returned.

Parameters
  • srv: pointer to the synchronous service state.

  • keyp: pointer to where the lock key should be stored

int onoff_sync_finalize(struct onoff_sync_service *srv, k_spinlock_key_t key, struct onoff_client *cli, int res, bool on)

Process the completion of a transition in a synchronous service and release lock.

This function updates the service state on the res and on parameters then releases the lock. If cli is not null it finalizes the client notification using res.

If the service was in an error state when locked, and res is non-negative when finalized, the count is reset to zero before completing finalization.

Return

negative if the service is left or put into an error state, otherwise the number of active requests at the time the lock was released.

Parameters
  • srv: pointer to the synchronous service state

  • key: the key returned by the preceding invocation of onoff_sync_lock().

  • cli: pointer to the onoff client through which completion information is returned. If a null pointer is passed only the state of the service is updated. For compatibility with the behavior of callbacks used with the manager API cli must be null when on is false (the manager does not support callbacks when turning off devices).

  • res: the result of the transition. A negative value places the service into an error state. A non-negative value increments or decrements the reference count as specified by on.

  • on: Only when res is non-negative, the service reference count will be incremented ifon is true, and decremented if on is false.

struct onoff_transitions
#include <onoff.h>

On-off service transition functions.

struct onoff_manager
#include <onoff.h>

State associated with an on-off manager.

No fields in this structure are intended for use by service providers or clients. The state is to be initialized once, using onoff_manager_init(), when the service provider is initialized. In case of error it may be reset through the onoff_reset() API.

struct onoff_client
#include <onoff.h>

State associated with a client of an on-off service.

Objects of this type are allocated by a client, which is responsible for zero-initializing the node field and invoking the approprite sys_notify init function to configure notification.

Control of the object content transfers to the service provider when a pointer to the object is passed to any on-off manager function. While the service provider controls the object the client must not change any object fields. Control reverts to the client concurrent with release of the owned sys_notify structure, or when indicated by an onoff_cancel() return value.

After control has reverted to the client the notify field must be reinitialized for the next operation.

struct onoff_monitor
#include <onoff.h>

Registration state for notifications of onoff service transitions.

Any given onoff_monitor structure can be associated with at most one onoff_manager instance.

struct onoff_sync_service
#include <onoff.h>

State used when a driver uses the on-off service API for synchronous operations.

This is useful when a subsystem API uses the on-off API to support asynchronous operations but the transitions required by a particular driver are isr-ok and not sleep. It serves as a substitute for onoff_manager, with locking and persisted state updates supported by onoff_sync_lock() and onoff_sync_finalize().