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x86 Developer Guide


This page contains information on certain aspects when developing for x86-based platforms.

Virtual Memory

During very early boot, page tables are loaded so technically the kernel is executing in virtual address space. By default, physical and virtual memory are identity mapped and thus giving the appearance of execution taking place in physical address space. The physical address space is marked by kconfig CONFIG_SRAM_BASE_ADDRESS and CONFIG_SRAM_SIZE while the virtual address space is marked by CONFIG_KERNEL_VM_BASE and CONFIG_KERNEL_VM_SIZE. Note that CONFIG_SRAM_OFFSET controls where the Zephyr kernel is being placed in the memory, and its counterpart CONFIG_KERNEL_VM_OFFSET.

Separate Virtual Address Space from Physical Address Space

On 32-bit x86, it is possible to have separate phyiscal and virtual address space. Code and data are linked in virtual address space, but are still loaded in physical memory. However, during boot, code and data must be available and also addressable in physical address space before vm_enter inside arch/x86/core/ia32/crt0.S. After vm_enter, code execution is done via virtual addresses and data can be referred via their virtual addresses. This is possible as the page table generation script (arch/x86/ identity maps the physical addresses at the page directory level, in addition to mapping virtual addresses to the physical memory. Later in the boot process, the entries for identity mapping at the page directory level are cleared in z_x86_mmu_init(), effectively removing the identity mapping of physical memory. This unmapping must be done for userspace isolation or else they would be able to access restricted memory via physical addresses. Since the identity mapping is done at the page directory level, there is no need to allocate additional space for the page table. However, additional space may still be required for additional page directory table.

There are restrictions on where virtual address space can be:

  • Physical and virtual address spaces must be disjoint. This is required as the entries in page directory table will be cleared. If they are not disjoint, it would clear the entries needed for virtual addresses.

    • If CONFIG_X86_PAE is enabled (=y), each address space must reside in their own 1GB region, due to each entry of PDP (Page Directory Pointer) covers 1GB of memory. For example:

      • Assuming CONFIG_SRAM_OFFSET and CONFIG_KERNEL_VM_OFFSET are both 0x0.

      • CONFIG_SRAM_BASE_ADDRESS == 0x00000000 and CONFIG_KERNEL_VM_BASE = 0x40000000 is valid, while

      • CONFIG_SRAM_BASE_ADDRESS == 0x00000000 and CONFIG_KERNEL_VM_BASE = 0x20000000 is not.

    • If CONFIG_X86_PAE is disabled (=n), each address space must reside in their own 4MB region, due to each entry of PD (Page Directory) covers 4MB of memory.

    • Both CONFIG_SRAM_BASE_ADDRESS and CONFIG_KERNEL_VM_BASE must also align with the starting addresses of targeted regions.

Specifying Additional Memory Mappings at Build Time

The page table generation script (arch/x86/ generates the necessary multi-level page tables for code execution and data access using the kernel image produced by the first linker pass. Additional command line arguments can be passed to the script to generate additional memory mappings. This is useful for static mappings and/or device MMIO access during very early boot. To pass extra command line arguments to the script, populate a CMake list named X86_EXTRA_GEN_MMU_ARGUMENTS in the board configuration file. Here is an example:

    --map 0xA0000000,0x2000
    --map 0x80000000,0x400000,LWUX,0xB0000000)

The argument --map takes the following value: <physical address>,<size>[,<flags:LUWX>[,<virtual adderss>]], where:

  • <physical address> is the physical address of the mapping. (Required)

  • <size> is the size of the region to be mapped. (Required)

  • <flags> is the flag associated with the mapping: (Optional)

    • L: Large page at the page directory level.

    • U: Allow userspace access.

    • W: Read/write.

    • X: Allow execution.

    • D: Cache disabled.

      • Default is small page (4KB), supervisor only, read only, and execution disabled.

  • <virtual address is the virtual address of the mapping. (Optional)

Note that specifying additional memory mappings requires larger storage space for the pre-allocated page tables (both kernel and per-domain tables). CONFIG_X86_EXTRA_PAGE_TABLE_PAGES is needed to specify how many more memory pages to be reserved for the page tables. If the needed space is not exactly the same as required space, the script will print out a message indicating what needs to be the value for the kconfig.