This is the documentation for the latest (master) development branch of Zephyr. If you are looking for the documentation of previous releases, use the drop-down menu on the left and select the desired version.

USB Mass Storage Sample Application

Overview

This sample app demonstrates use of a USB Mass Storage driver by the Zephyr project. This very simple driver enumerates a board with either RAM or FLASH into an USB disk. This sample can be found under samples/subsys/usb/mass in the Zephyr project tree.

Requirements

This project requires a USB device driver, and either 16KiB of RAM or a FLASH device.

Building and Running

This sample can be built for multiple boards, some generic and some customized through configurations found in samples/subsys/usb/mass/boards in the Zephyr project tree.

Generic Example

The selection between a RAM-based or a FLASH-based disk can be selected using the overlay-ram-disk.conf or the overlay-flash-disk.conf overlays. In this example we will build the sample with a RAM-based disk:

west build -b reel_board samples/subsys/usb/mass -- -DOVERLAY_CONFIG="overlay-ram-disk.conf"

After you have built and flashed the sample app image to your board, plug the board into a host device, for example, a PC running Linux. The board will be detected as shown by the Linux journalctl command:

$ journalctl -k -n 17
usb 2-2.4: new full-speed USB device number 29 using xhci_hcd
usb 2-2.4: New USB device found, idVendor=2fe3, idProduct=0008, bcdDevice= 2.03
usb 2-2.4: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
usb 2-2.4: Product: Zephyr MSC sample
usb 2-2.4: Manufacturer: ZEPHYR
usb 2-2.4: SerialNumber: 86FE679A598AC47A
usb-storage 2-2.4:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
scsi host3: usb-storage 2-2.4:1.0
scsi 3:0:0:0: Direct-Access     ZEPHYR   ZEPHYR USB DISK  0.01 PQ: 0 ANSI: 0 CCS
sd 3:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg1 type 0
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] 32 512-byte logical blocks: (16.4 kB/16.0 KiB)
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 03 00 00 00
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] No Caching mode page found
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
 sdb:
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk

The disk contains a simple README.TXT file with the following content:

This is a  RAM Disk based  USB Mass Storage demo for Zephyr.

Files can be added or removed like with a simple USB disk, of course within the 16KiB limit.

nrf52840dk_nrf52840 Example

This board configures to use the external 64 MiBi QSPI flash chip with a 64 KiBy littlefs partition compatible with the one produced by the littlefs File System Sample Application. While a FAT-based file system can be mounted by many systems automatically, mounting the littlefs file system on a Linux or FreeBSD system can be accomplished using the littlefs-FUSE utility.

west build -b nrf52840dk_nrf52840 samples/subsys/usb/mass

After you have built and flashed the sample app image to your board, connect the board’s two USB connectors (debug and nRF USB) to a host running a littlefs-FUSE-capable operating system. The output to the console will look something like this (file system contents will be different):

*** Booting Zephyr OS build zephyr-v2.2.0-1966-g7815942d5fc5  ***
Area 4 at 0x0 on MX25R64 for 65536 bytes
[00:00:00.005,310] <inf> main: The device is put in USB mass storage mode.

[00:00:00.009,002] <inf> littlefs: LittleFS version 2.2, disk version 2.0
[00:00:00.009,063] <inf> littlefs: FS at MX25R64:0x0 is 16 0x1000-byte blocks with 512 cye
[00:00:00.009,063] <inf> littlefs: sizes: rd 16 ; pr 16 ; ca 64 ; la 32
[00:00:00.011,718] <inf> littlefs: /lfs mounted
Mount /lfs: 0
/lfs: bsize = 16 ; frsize = 4096 ; blocks = 16 ; bfree = 13
/lfs opendir: 0
  F 8 hi
  F 128 linux
  F 5 newfile
End of files

Determine the local device name from the system log, e.g.:

Apr 25 08:10:25 tirzah kernel: [570310.921039] scsi 17:0:0:0: Direct-Access     ZEPHYR   ZEPHYR USB DISK  0.01 PQ: 0 ANSI: 0 CCS
Apr 25 08:10:25 tirzah kernel: [570310.921550] sd 17:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg4 type 0
Apr 25 08:10:25 tirzah kernel: [570310.922277] sd 17:0:0:0: [sdd] 128 512-byte logical blocks: (65.5 kB/64.0 KiB)
Apr 25 08:10:25 tirzah kernel: [570310.922696] sd 17:0:0:0: [sdd] Write Protect is off

This shows that the block device associated with the USB drive is /dev/sdd:

tirzah[447]$ ll /dev/sdd
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 48 Apr 25 08:10 /dev/sdd

This can be mounted as a file system with the following commands:

sudo chmod a+rw /dev/sdd   # required to allow user access
mkdir /tmp/lfs
lfs \
       --read_size=16 \
       --prog_size=16 \
       --block_size=4096 \
       --block_count=16 \
       --cache_size=64 \
       --lookahead_size=32 \
       /dev/sdd /tmp/lfs

which produces this output:

tirzah[467]$ ls -l /tmp/lfs
total 0
-rwxrwxrwx 0 root root   8 Dec 31  1969 hi
-rwxrwxrwx 0 root root 128 Dec 31  1969 linux
-rwxrwxrwx 0 root root   5 Dec 31  1969 newfile

lfs is a mount command and you should take care to unmount the device before removing the USB drive:

umount /tmp/lfs

littlefs parameter selection

Be aware that the parameters passed to lfs in the example above must exactly match the corresponding parameters used to initialize the file system. The required parameters can be observed from the Zephyr mount log messages:

[00:00:00.009,002] <inf> littlefs: LittleFS version 2.2, disk version 2.0
[00:00:00.009,063] <inf> littlefs: FS at MX25R64:0x0 is 16 0x1000-byte blocks with 512 cye
[00:00:00.009,063] <inf> littlefs: sizes: rd 16 ; pr 16 ; ca 64 ; la 32
  • --read_size corresponds to the rd size and is 16;

  • --prog_size corresponds to the pr size and is 16;

  • --block_size comes from 0x1000-byte blocks and is 4096 (0x1000);

  • --block_count comes from 16 0x1000-byte blocks and is 16;

  • --cache_size comes from the ca size and is 64;

  • --lookahead_size comes from the la size and is 32

If any of the parameters are inconsistent between the Zephyr and Linux specification the file system will not mount correctly.